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Standards Reference


This article is a reference to XML and it's surrounding standards. We'll keep this page up-to-date. Bookmark this page (just press Ctrl+D) so that you can come back here again, whenever you need to refer to any standard!
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Standard Description URL and Status More Information

Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3C specification. In it's simplest form, XML is a powerful medium of data exchange. It allows you to create your own meta-language (tags) to represent data and meta-data (data about data).

http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml External link
(W3C Recommendation)

XML Focus Section




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Document Object Model (DOM)

Document Object Model (DOM), a programming interface specification being developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), lets a programmer create and modify HTML pages and XML document as full-fledged program object. The Document Object Model offers two levels of interface implementation: DOM Core, which supports XML and is the base for the next level, and DOM HTML, which extends the model to HTML documents.

http://www.w3.org/DOM/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

DOM Focus Section




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Simple API for XML (SAX)

SAX, the Simple API for XML, is a standard interface for event-based XML parsing, developed collaboratively by the members of the XML-DEV mailing list. SAX2 is a new version of the popular Simple API for XML, incorporating support for Namespaces, for filter chains, and for querying and setting features and properties in the parser.

http://www.megginson.com/SAX/ External link

SAX Focus Section




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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) is a style sheet language that allows authors and users to attach style (e.g., fonts, spacing, and aural cues) to structured documents (e.g., HTML documents and XML applications). By separating the presentation style of documents from the content of documents, CSS2 simplifies Web authoring and site maintenance.

http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

CSS Focus Section




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Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)

Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is a language for expressing stylesheets. It consists of two parts:
1. XSL Transformations (XSLT): a language for transforming XML documents
2. An XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics (XSL Formatting Objects)
An XSL stylesheet specifies the presentation of a class of XML documents by describing how an instance of the class is transformed into an XML document that uses the formatting vocabulary.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xsl/ External link
(W3C Candidate Recommendation)

XSL Focus Section




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XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0

The Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) W3C recommendation describes a transformation vocabulary used to specify how to create new structured information from existing XML documents.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt.html External link
(W3C Recommendation)

http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt11/ External link
(XSLT 1.1 Working Draft )

XSLT Focus Section




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Namespaces in XML

XML Namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying element and attribute names used in Extensible Markup Language documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI references. XML Namespaces are the solution to the problem of ambiguity and name collisions.

http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

Namespace Focus Section




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XML Information Set (Infoset)

The purpose of XML Information Set (Infoset) is to provide a consistent set of definitions for use in other specifications that need to refer to the information in a well-formed XML document. In other words, Infoset provides a common vocabulary to describe the contents of an XML document.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-infoset/ External link
(W3C Working Draft)

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XML Schema

A schema - in an XML parlance, is used to describe the possible data content of a document in a very rigorous and formal way. Much like a contract or a treaty is used to spell out the terms of a business or formal social agreement, a schema is used to codify the intention to use a particular set of mark-up tag names, and combine the tags in a particular order. Schema provides a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/ External link
(W3C Proposed Recommendation)

Schema Focus Section




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XML Query

The mission of the XML Query working group is to provide flexible query facilities to extract data from real and virtual documents on the Web, therefore finally providing the needed interaction between the web world and the database world. Ultimately, collections of XML files will be accessed like databases.

http://www.w3.org/XML/Query External link
(W3C Working Draft)

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Resource Description Framework (RDF)

RDF--the Resource Description Framework--is a framework for metadata; it provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web. RDF emphasizes facilities to enable automated processing of Web resources. The RDF integrates a variety of web-based metadata activities including sitemaps, content ratings, stream channel definitions, search engine data collection (web crawling), digital library collections, and distributed authoring, using XML as an interchange syntax.

http://www.w3.org/RDF/ External link

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XML Linking Language (XLink) Version 1.0

XML Linking Language (XLink), allows elements to be inserted into XML documents in order to create and describe links between resources. It uses XML syntax to create structures that can describe the simple unidirectional hyperlinks of today's HTML, as well as more sophisticated links.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

XLink Focus Section




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XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0

XPath is a language for addressing parts of an XML document, designed to be used by both XSLT and XPointer.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath External link
(W3C Recommendation)

XPath Focus Section




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XML Pointer Language (XPointer)

XML Pointer Language (XPointer), is the language to be used as the basis for a fragment identifier for any URI reference that locates a resource of Internet media type text/xml or application/xml.
XPointer, which is based on the XML Path Language (XPath), supports addressing into the internal structures of XML documents. It allows for examination of a hierarchical document structure and choice of its internal parts based on various properties, such as element types, attribute values, character content, and relative position.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr External link
(Candidate Recommendation)

XPointer Focus Section




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XML Fragment Interchange [XML Fragments]

The XML specification supports logical documents composed of possibly several entities. It's very common to view or edit one or more of the entities or even part of an entity while having no interest in viewing or editing the entire document. We need a way, however, to provide the client with enough contextual information about the larger document that the document fragment lives within without the client having to interact with the entire document.

XML Fragments define a standardized mechanism for accomplishing this goal.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-fragment External link
(W3C Candidate Recommendation)

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XML Base

XML Base provides a mechanism for providing base URI services to XLink, also it is a modular specification so that other XML applications not built upon XLink can also make use of it. The syntax consists of a single XML attribute named xml:base.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlbase/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

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XHTML

XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is the "XML-ization of HTML"—essentially the "newest version" of HTML, which extends its functionality to support a wider range of devices and applications. Simply, a reformulation of HTML 4.01 under the rules of XML.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

XHTML Focus Section




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XForms 1.0

"XForms" is W3C's name for a specification of Web forms that can be used with a wide variety of platforms of varying capabilities, for instance, desktop computers, television sets, personal digital assistants, cell phones, computer peripherals and even paper.

XForms are the successor to XHTML forms, and benefit from the lessons learned in the years of HTML forms implementation experience.

http://www.w3.org/TR/xforms/ External link
(W3C Working Draft)


Understanding XForms




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WAP - WML

Wireless Application Protocol, or WAP, is the de facto worldwide standard for providing Internet communications and advanced telephony services on digital mobile phones, pagers, personal digital assistants and other wireless terminals.

The Wireless Application Protocol is a standard developed by the WAP Forum, a group founded by Nokia, Ericsson, Phone.com (formerly Unwired Planet), and Motorola. WAP defines a communications protocol as well as an application environment. In essence, it is a standardized technology for cross-platform, distributed computing.

WML (Wireless Markup Language), formerly called HDML (Handheld Devices Markup Language), is a markup language that is based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language). This specification defines the syntax, variables, and elements used in a valid WML file.

http://www.wapforum.org/ External link
WAP Forum Approved Specification

WAP and WML Focus Section




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XML-based User Interface Language (XUL pronounced "zuul")

XUL (Extensible User-interface Language) is a standard way to exchange data that describes a program's user interface, or at least the portion of it that can be controlled by programming.

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Introduction to XUL External link
XPToolkit for XUL External link




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MathML

MathML is intended to facilitate the use and re-use of mathematical and scientific content on the Web, and for other applications such as computer algebra systems, print typesetting, and voice synthesis. MathML can be used to encode both the presentation of mathematical notation for high-quality visual display, and mathematical content, for applications where the semantics plays more of a key role such as scientific software or voice synthesis.

MathML is cast as an application of XML.

http://www.w3.org/Math/ External link
(W3C Recommendation, 02/21/2001)


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Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language 1.0 (SMIL pronounced "smile")

SMIL, an application of XML, allows integrating a set of independent multimedia objects into a synchronized multimedia presentation.

http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-smil/ External link
(W3C Recommendation)

http://www.w3.org/TR/smil20/ External link
(SMIL 2.0 Working Draft)


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Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)

SVG is a language for describing two-dimensional graphics in XML. SVG allows for three types of graphic objects: vector graphic shapes (e.g., paths consisting of straight lines and curves), images and text. Graphical objects can be grouped, styled, transformed and composited into previously rendered objects. Text can be in any XML namespace suitable to the appplication, which enhances searchability and accessibility of the SVG graphics. The feature set includes nested transformations, clipping paths, alpha masks, filter effects, template objects and extensibility.

SVG drawings can be dynamic and interactive. The Document Object Model (DOM) for SVG, which includes the full XML DOM, allows for straightforward and efficient vector graphics animation via scripting. A rich set of event handlers such as onmouseover and onclick can be assigned to any SVG graphical object. Because of its compatibility and leveraging of other Web standards, features like scripting can be done on SVG elements and other XML elements from different namespaces simultaneously within the same Web page.

http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/Overview.htm8 External link
(W3C Candidate Recommendation)

More on SVG External link




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Vector Markup Language (VML)

Vector Markup Language (VML) is an XML-based exchange, editing, and delivery format for high-quality vector graphics on the Web that meets the needs of both productivity users and graphic design professionals.

http://msdn.microsoft.com/standards/vml/ External link

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XML-RPC

XML-RPC is a Remote Procedure Calling protocol that works over the Internet.
An XML-RPC message is an HTTP-POST request. The body of the request is in XML. A procedure executes on the server and the value it returns is also formatted in XML.
Procedure parameters can be scalars, numbers, strings, dates, etc.; and can also be complex record and list structures.

http://www.xmlrpc.com/spec External link

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Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 1.1

SOAP, or Simple Object Access Protocol is an XML-based object invocation protocol. SOAP was originally developed for distributed applications to communicate over HTTP and through corporate firewalls. SOAP defines the use of XML and HTTP to access services, objects and servers in a platform-independent manner.

SOAP is a lightweight protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. It is an XML based protocol that consists of three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses. SOAP can potentially be used in combination with a variety of other protocols; however, the only bindings defined in this document describe how to use SOAP in combination with HTTP and HTTP Extension Framework.

http://www.w3.org/TR/SOAP/ External link

SOAP Focus Section

SOAP Resources External link





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